In coronary artery spasms, the walls of blood vessels squeeze together, and this causes part of the blood vessels to narrow. These spasms are not always painful or severe. Sometimes, however, they can lead to severe problems including, heart attack, chest pain, and even death. Accurately detecting and diagnosing this condition is the biggest challenge the doctor faces. The reason for chest pain and heart attack can be many.
Coronary artery spasms occur when an artery tightens and narrows, which carries blood to the heart. The heart has to work harder because through the affected area, the artery spasms to pump blood. A person affected by this disease may not experience any symptoms. If a person has symptoms unless a test is conducted during the actual spasm, it can be challenging to link the signs to the issue.
The symptoms can be very mild, and the person affected may not realize that they have a spasm. It can also be severe that it is physically disabling. Coronary artery spasms happen when a person is at rest. Some research suggests that a person is most likely to experience coronary artery spasms between midnight and early morning.
The symptoms include chest pain that may spread to the head or shoulders, a burning feeling in the chest, a sense of tightness, pressure or a squeezing sensation, sweating, nausea, feeling faint. In severe cases, a person might experience intense, prolonged chest pain along with cold sweat, nausea, or vomiting. People may also experience temporary loss of consciousness. A person might feel muscular pain in their arm or jaw.
The causes of the disease are multifaceted and complex. The reasons include the body’s automatic nervous system, any underlying heart conditions, chronic inflammation. Depending upon a person’s unique physical state, many other bodily mechanisms may be involved. The other factors that cause coronary artery spasms are smoking, experiencing anxiety or stress, exposure to cold, exercising, using vasoconstrictor drugs, using cannabis or cocaine and other stimulant drugs, drinking alcohol.
According to health experts, many factors can increase the risk of this disease, like chemotherapy, magnesium deficiency, hypertension, diabetes. Research says females are more affected by the disease than men. People affected by this disease may be younger and exhibit fewer typical risk factors for cardiovascular problems.
There are three primary tests to diagnose the disease which reveals symptoms –
- Electrocardiogram – Test that checks for unusual electrical patterns in the heart.
- Coronary angiography – The test that creates images of blood vessels.
- Echocardiogram – Test that uses ultrasound technology to examine heart valves and blood flow.
Additional test like provocative testing is also needed. During this test, specific drugs provoke a spasm that allows certainty in diagnosing the condition.
Treatment for Coronary artery spasms –
There is no single cure for the disease, but many ways to manage the condition and reduce the symptoms. A person should quit smoking if affected by the disease. By making changes to activity level and diet, a person can reduce their risk of repeat spasms.
The medications include –
- nitrates – to relieve chest pain
- magnesium – if the level is low
- calcium channel blockers – to reduce muscle tightening in the arteries
- statins – to strengthen the arteries and lower cholesterol.
When did someone think of an idiom which goes as, what came first chicken or egg? He never thought about the world’s most dangerous and fatal bird — the cassowary (Casuarius). A recent study indicates that the connection between human beings and cassowaries dates back to the late Pleistocene period — many thousand years before humans domesticated chickens and geese. “And this is not some minor fowl,” lead research writer Kristina Douglass, an archaeologist at Penn State, explained in an article.
“It is a massive, ornery, flightless bird that can disembowel you — most probably, the dwarf species that weighs 20 kilos.” The experimenters think there was an intricate food-gathering method in ancient times. They also tried to evaluate the fossils of historical cassowary eggshells. Douglass and his international squad of investigators assumed that some 18,000 years ago, people in New Guinea were amassing, incubating — and probably raising — cassowary chicks. It affects the earliest comprehended proof of willful bird rearing.
Utilizing a mixture of 3D imaging, computer modeling, and egg morphology, the experts analyzed over 1,000 pieces of cassowary eggshells courting back between 6,000 and 18,000 years ago. “We tried that strategy to recognize whether or not there was any structure in terms of when people were farming cassowary eggs,” Douglass said to a news channel. “And we discovered that there was a structure and that people were farming eggs preferentially in the delinquent phases of growth.”
According to Douglass, humans would have saved these eggs for one of two motives: to consume them, or they might sometimes breed the hatched chicks for their flesh and feathers. In the later stages, fertilized eggs are famous street food in various East Asian and South Pacific nations — notably, the Philippines, according to a journal printed in 2019 in the Journal of Ethnic Foods.
Popularly recognized as balut, the dish is usually created with duck eggs today. However, Douglass and her crew say that people in New Guinea may have been consuming cassowary balut thousands of years ago.
Or, they may have been breeding cassowary chicks. Like geese, cassowary chicks trace on the first animal they notice, according to the University of Michigan’s Animal Diversity Web. University of Maine anthropologist Paul Roscoe says that this makes them oddly excellent for human farming, a method that starts again in portions of New Guinea to this day. However, Douglass and her squad did not find proof of historical people reproducing cassowaries because they intended to do in the future.
Cassowaries and their eggs are valuable reserves for New Guineans. In ancient times, cassowary tibiotarsus, the upper portion of the limb, was used to customize bone blades for hunting, as published in a research paper of Royal Society. Today, their feathers are treasured for decoration, and the birds stay a crucial basis of flesh. “Cassowary is quite a treat,” Roscoe confessed. According to vertebrate paleontology Darren Naish, a terrified or territorial cassowary can lash out with a strong force enough to disembowel a medium-size (or even human-size) mammal.